The Range was much colder 9,000 years ago -- it is likely that the Arctic Ocean was frozen over then. The bears, wolves, foxes, wolverines, lynxes, caribou, moose, musk oxen, beaver, porcupines, ground squirrels, voles, and lemmings that now inhabit the mountains now live comfortably within the range of temperatures their various species can handle. The fifty degrees below zero common in their present winters is considerably warmer than what their ancestors knew.